• 24 AUG 18
    • 0

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Topic: Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    FINAL PAPER:

    1. Formatting:

    a. Minimum of 4 pages, maximum of 6 pages NOT including name, title, date, etc. You must actually write 4-6 pages of text.

    b. Page count also does NOT include references, figures, or any cover pages.

    c. Margins should be 1” on all sides

    d. Calibri font, 11pt

    e. Double-spaced

    **Deviations from this format will result in lost points**

    2. Guidelines for writing:

    a. Elaborate on each of the 5 major points of information outlined in the Summary Outline portion of these guidelines. This includes defining terms that are new/unfamiliar to you.

    b. Ensure that proper use of grammar and sentence structure is used prior to submitting the assignment. In other words, proof read your paper! Be aware that help is available to you at Hood for this (see section (i) below)

    c. While short statements and lists are acceptable in the summary outline, they are NOT acceptable in the final paper.

    i. When discussing the different types of cancers that can arise in your organ, you must also provide a brief description of each type of tumor to indicate how they are all different despite being found in the same organ/organ system.

    ii. You only need to do further research (numbers 2-5 of the Summary Outline) on ONE of the types of cancer that you describe for your organ/organ system.

    1. You should consider choosing a tumor type that has the most information available to make it easier on yourself.

    2. DO NOT attempt to research all of the different cancers for this paper – just choose one.

    d. Figures and tables are welcomed if they are relevant, but not required. Any figure or table that is included must be appropriately referenced and it must be described in the text of the paper. DO NOT simply insert a figure/table without any context.

    e. You must reference all information that you gather. Each reference should be numbered. To reference information, add the appropriate reference number in parentheses just prior to the period of the sentence in which the information is stated. Example: “Approximately ten thousand people in the U.S. have this type of cancer (1).”

    f. You must provide a separate “References” section at the end of the paper where you list the full reference information. This must be done using the Counsel of Science Editors (CSE) format. Refer to this website for more information (click on “Examples of end references”): https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocCSE_NameYear.html

    i. You must include a minimum of 4 different references. This means that all your references should not be from the same place (e.g. all from various WebMD pages). There is a lot of information out there, best not to limit yourself!

    ii. There is no maximum number of references, but about 10 is sufficient.

    g. Acceptable references are: websites such as those associated with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and other government agencies; websites from clinics such as the Mayo Clinic and Johns Hopkins, as well as other cancer centers and hospitals; WebMD and Scientific American.

    h. Unacceptable references are: Wikipedia, news agencies (e.g. CNN, Fox, etc.), blogs, Facebook (or any other social media platforms), and other non-scientific/non-clinical sources.

    Summary Outline for reference. (please elaborate more on answers find out further information)

    1. Name all of the types of cancer that can arise in the organ or organ system you chose.

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma- the most common of all liver cancers. This cancer occurs in people that have chronic liver diseases that are mostly caused by Hep-B and Hep-C

    Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma– the second most common primary liver tumor. “These cancers start in the cells that line the small bile ducts (tubes that carry bile to the gallbladder) within the liver. (Most cholangiocarcinomas start in the bile ducts outside the liver.)”

    Liver Angiosarcoma– This is rare cancer, and it begins in the lining of the blood vessels in the liver. This cancer is common for people that have been exposed to vinyl chloride or thorium dioxide and “arsenic or radium, or to an inherited condition known as hereditary hemochromatosis.”

    Hepatoblastoma– This is another rare cancer that is commonly connected to children. The cells from this cancer are similar to fetal liver cells.

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    2. How common is cancer you chose in 1a?

    Very common,

    “About 42,220 new cases (30,610 in men and 11,610 in women) will be diagnosed” (ACS) As of 2018

    75 percent of liver cancer patients have this form of cancer

    How deadly is cancer you chose in 1a (i.e., what is the “mortality” rate)?

    Up to 75 percent of all patients die if it is not detected early

    “About 30,200 people (20,540 men and 9,660 women) will die of these cancers” (ACS) As of 2018

    Morbidity

    Heavy upper abdomen

    Pale and chalky stool in most cases accompanied by dark urine.

    The patients may also experience nausea and vomiting

    skin and the eyes of the patient develop a yellow like pigment color, a condition referred to as jaundice

    Unexplainable weight loss.

    Are there any genes known to cause cancer you chose in 1a?

    One chemical called: Aflatoxins, can cause damage to TP53 a tumor suppressor gene.

    Infection of the liver cells that are connected to Hep-B and Hep-C can also damage the DNA.

    What are the available treatment options for cancer you chose in 1a? How effective are they at reducing either morbidity or mortality?

    · Surgery- this is only for tumors that have not grown into the blood vessels.

    · Tumor ablation- destroying the tumor without removing them. This is less likely to cure cancer.

     Tumor embolization- injecting substances to stop blood flow to cancer cells. Only good for patients that tumors are big and not for patients that have liver disease.

    · Radiation therapy- most common, does work.

    · Targeted therapy- chemotherapy drugs, more effective than chemo itself.

    · Chemo- not that effective in patients with liver cancer.

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