Chapter 11: Stress & Health (Active Learning Activity = 15 poi
Use the crossword puzzle to fill in the blanks on the next page(s). (You do NOT need to actually write your answers in the boxes here).
Part 1—Knowing Key Terms (4 points) :
Fill in the blanks from the crossword puzzle above using key terms from the textbook and/or lecture notes.
4. negative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration.-
6. psychological experience of being pulled toward or drawn to two or more desires or goals, only one of which may be attained.-
8. psychological defense mechanism in which emotional reactions and behavioral responses are shifted to targets that are more available or less threatening than the original target.-
10. people who expect positive outcomes.-
12. leaving the presence of a stressor, either literally or by a psychological withdrawal into fantasy, drug abuse, or apathy.-
17. psychological defense mechanism in which the person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior.-
19. events that cause a stress reaction.-
20. psychological defense mechanism in which unacceptable or threatening impulses or feelings are seen as originating with someone else, usually the target of the impulses or feelings.-
21. psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind.-
24. an unpredictable, large-scale event that creates a tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat.-
1. defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.-
2. people who expect negative outcomes.-
3. the effect of positive events, or the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being.-
5. the study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thoughts, and behavior on the immune system.-
7. the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors.-
9. mental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trance-like state of consciousness.-
11. psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation.-
13. the psychological experience produced by urgent demands or expectations for a person’s behavior that come from an outside source.-
14. the psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desired goal or fulfillment of a perceived need.-
15. the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised threatening or challenging.-
16. the three stages of the body’s physiological reaction to stress, including alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.-
18. actions meant to harm or destroy.-
22. the daily annoyances of everyday life.-
23. psychological defense mechanism in which a person falls back on child-like patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations.-
25. channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acceptable behavior.-
Part 2—Comprehending and Applying Concepts (3 points):
Answer each of the following questions by: (1) Underlining the correct options for multiple choice items, or (2) Providing the correct short answer where appropriate.
1. The term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are viewed as threatening or challenging is .
2. The response an individual might have to an unpleasant stressor, such as losing his job, would be called .
3. After we have decided that a certain event is a stressor, we must decide how we will deal with it and what resources are available for coping with the stressor. This process is called .
4. According to the cognitive-mediational theory of emotions proposed by Richard Lazarus, which of the following would be the best way to reduce the stress of losing a job?
a) Try to ignore the problem.
b) Try to understand all the negative implications of the loss.
c) List all the resources that you do not have available and will need to acquire.
d) View the loss as a challenge and opportunity to explore a new career.
5. Which of the following is an example of a stressor that would be classified as a hassle according to Richard Lazarus?
a) getting married
b) locking your keys in the car
c) losing your house due to a flood
d) the death of a family member
6. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) measures stress related to:
a) positive and negative life events
b) only negative life events
c) only positive life events
d) internal stressors
7. Gloria is a tax accountant, who is very busy from January to April 15, which is the tax return filing deadline. She feels that she must work very long hours during this time to meet the April 15 deadline for all of her clients. Gloria is experiencing .
8. Which of the following is usually the first step in the practice of mindfulness meditation?
a) Selecting a single word, a mantra, to focus on.
b) Giving control of one’s consciousness to another individual.
c) Sitting on a cushion with crossed legs or in a chair with a straight back.
d) Taking a muscle relaxant or an anesthetic.
9. Which of the following is an example of an avoidance-avoidance conflict?
a) a person who enjoys the ocean has to choose between retiring in the Bahamas or in Tahiti
b) a student has to decide whether to turn in an unfinished paper and receive a failing grade or hand it in late and lose many points
c) someone wanting to eat some cake but not wanting the calories
d) a person who loves chocolate must choose between chocolate cake or chocolate ice cream
10. According to Selye, some people may develop illnesses such as high blood pressure or weakened immune system during the stage of the GAS.
11. Someone who would be classified as having a Type C personality would be likely to
a) openly express his or her anger at someone.
b) try to always look on the bright side of a situation.
c) display a great deal of hostility when things don’t go his or her way.
d) internalize his or her anger so that no one can see his or her true emotion.
12. Pepe moved from Argentina to France. He chose not to learn to speak and write French, continues to maintain his old culture’s styles of dress and customs, and lives in a neighborhood where only people from Argentina live. Pepe has used which method of entering the majority culture?
13. Her mother is ill and Vanna is feeling overwhelmed and sad. To cope with this stress of her mother’s illness, Vanna has been writing her feelings down in a journal. Vanna is using ___________.
a) problem-focused coping
b) emotion-focused coping
14. Several studies have found a positive correlation between level of religious commitment and .
15. Stress has been shown to be related to :
a) increased resistance to environmental threats
b) decreased efficiency of the reticular formation
c) increased galvanic skin response
d) decreased efficiency of the body’s immune system
Part 3—Underst anding and Analyzing Concepts (3 points) :
Read each statement and decide whether it is TRUE or FALSE based upon your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes.
1. Stress is the process of responding physically, emotionally, cognitively, and behaviorally to events that are perceived to be threatening or challenging.
2. Research in health psychology finds that most people live stress-free on a regular basis, and those who encounter daily stress are more likely to develop medical and psychological problems.
3. Research into the amount of stress that people generally experience suggests that even small amounts of stress inhibit our best performance, and that zero stress is optimal for promoting health and well-being.
4. Hurricane Katrina and its various effects on the cities near the Gulf of Mexico are classic examples of what Selye calls hassles.
5. Studies conducted on the relationship between stress and accidents in the workplace have shown that people under a lot of stress tend to be more distracted, less cautious, and therefore, place themselves at a greater risk for having an accident.
6. According to Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale, going on vacation is about as stressful as changing to a different line of work.
7. People who talk about suicide just want attention and won’t really follow through with it.
8. Hassles are correlated with increased short-term illnesses such as colds, backaches, and headaches.
9. Traffic jams are an example of an internal source of frustration.
10. Dropping out of school, engaging in fantasy, and using drugs are all examples of withdrawal from frustration.
11. Once seated at his favorite restaurant, Malik was torn between ordering a turkey sandwich and ordering a plate of lasagna. He loves both equally, and is struggling to make a choice. Malik is experiencing an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
12. When the body’s resources are gone, the parasympathetic nervous system activates and the individual is in the resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
13. Research reveals that there is a relationship between prolonged stress and certain diseases of adaptation such as high blood pressure and ulcers.
14. The field of psychoneuroimmunology studies the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thinking, and behavior on the immune system.
15. Because AIDS is caused by a virus (HIV), psychoneuroimmunologists have determined that there is no relationship between stress and AIDS.
16. The primary concern of a health psychologist is focusing on how various factors, including physical activities, psychological traits, and social relationships, affect our overall health and rate of illnesses.
17. Secondary appraisal involves classifying the stressor as a threat or challenge.
18. Type B personality is characterized by competitiveness, high ambition, hostility, and irritability.
19. Because Markita has difficulty expressing her emotions, even when they are really bothering her, she would be described as having a Type C personality.
One of the more serious effects of workplace stress is a condition called burnout.
20. Guillermo has recently moved to the United States, but has decided to live in a part of Chicago that is very similar to his native Philippines. He does not embrace or involve himself in American culture any more than is absolutely necessary. Guillermo is experiencing marginalization from the majority culture of his new home.
Part 4—Synthes izing and Evaluating Concepts (5 points) :
Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).
1. Describe the stages of the general adaptation syndrome. What problems occur with continued exposure to stress?
2. List and explain the three qualities that make up a hardy personality.
3. Janel is stuck in a major traffic jam, and has gone nowhere in over 45 minutes. Based on what you know about the psychological factors that contribute to stress (e.g., pressure, frustration, etc.), discuss the factors that are contributing to her rising stress levels and note how she might respond to the stress if the traffic doesn’t clear up soon.
4. Compare and contrast problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. Is one necessarily better than the other? Can you give an example where either might be useful, stating the specific way in which each coping skill might be employed?
5. Differentiate between the primary and secondary appraisals given in a stressful situation. Give an example of a stressful situation that you have encountered and describe your processes of using primary and secondary appraisals.