• 27 AUG 18
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    Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life

     

    Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life

    Module 2.1 All life is made of molecules, which are made of atoms.

    1. The scientific study of matter is chemistry.

    2. Fill in the table regarding the states of matter by providing an example of each that is NOT in your book.

    Solid Liquid Gas
    Example

    3. Match the following terms with their correct definitions:

    matteratommoleculeelementcompound

    a. The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of its specific type of matter:

    b. A substance that cannot be broken into a simpler substance:

    c. Anything that occupies space and takes up mass:

    d. Substances with two or more elements in a fixed ratio:

    e. Atoms that are bonded to one another:

    4. Fill in the following diagram that illustrates the relationship between compounds and elements:

    a. 

    b. 

    5. Neapolitan ice cream is vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry combined in a 1:1:1 ratio. Briefly explain how Neapolitan ice cream is a good analogy for compounds.

    6. Complete the following diagram with regard to chemical reactions:

    Module 2.2 All matter consists of chemical elements.

    7.       are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

    8. What elements are in the compound NaCl (table salt)

    9. Is H2O (water) an element? If not, explain your answer.

    10. Where can you find all of the elements listed by atomic number?

    11.  Complete the following diagram of an element from the periodic table:

    12. Which of the following elements make up the majority of organisms?

    a. |_| Carbon

    b. |_| Hydrogen

    c. |_| Oxygen

    d. |_| Nitrogen

    e. |_| All of the above

    13. Fill in the following table regarding elements found in organisms:

    Required in large amounts Required in small amounts Required in tiny amounts
    % contribution to your cells

    Example

    Module 2.3 Atoms are composed of subatomic particles.

    14. Atoms are made of smaller substances referred to as      .

    15. An atom comprises what three smaller substances:

    1. 

    2. 

    3. 

    16. Complete the following table regarding atoms:

    Subatomic particle Mass Charge

    17. Match the following terms to the proper characteristic. Some terms may be used more than once:

    Nucleus, proton, electron, neutron, electron shell, subatomic particles

    a. Has no mass:

    b. Found in the nucleus:

    c. Center of the atom:

    d. Contains electrons:

    e. In constant motion:

    f. Protons, electrons, neutrons:

    18. Complete the following diagram of the atom:

               

         

         

    19. An atom of carbon has six protons. What if you change the number of protons to seven? Is it still carbon? Explain your answer.

    20.       vary in the number of electrons.

    21. Briefly explain how you can have two atoms of carbon, yet each have a different atomic weight.

    22. Atoms are considered to be electrically neutral (no overall electric charge) unless stated otherwise. If you have an ion (an atom with an electric charge), what subatomic particle has to vary? Breifly explain why.

    23. Complete the following table by filling each line with the correct volume:

    Element Atomic Number Mass Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons Number of Electrons
    Carbon-12

    12 6

    Nitrogen-14

    7 7
    Chlorine-35

    35 17

    Oxygen-16

    8
    Carbon -14

    Module 2.4 Atoms are held together by chemical bonds.

    24. What are the three ways in which atoms can interact with one another with respect to their electrons?

    1. 

    2. 

    3. 

    25. An attractive force that holds two atoms together is generically referred to as a(n):

    a. |_| molecule

    b. |_| chemical bond

    c. |_| electron cloud

    d. |_| compound

    26. Complete the following diagram illustrating ionic bonds. Atom X gives one |_|electron to each atom Y. What are the ions that form as a result? Put the charges under each atom.

    27. Which of the following would be considered a covalent bond?

    a. |_| double bond

    b. |_| single bond

    c. |_| triple bond

    d. |_| all of the above

    28. Methane is to a nonpolar covalent bond as H2O is to a(n):

    a. |_| chemical bond

    b. |_| ionic bond

    c. |_| polar covalent bond

    d. |_| triple bond

    29. Complete the following diagram illustrating chemical bonds:

    a. 

    b. 

    c. 

    d. 

    D

    C

    B

    A

    30. Match the following terms to their definition:

    Ionic bond, covalent bond, polar covalent bond, nonpolar covalent bond, hydrogen bond

    a. A weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen and a slightly negative atom:

    b. Two atoms sharing electrons:

    c. Atoms sharing electrons equally:

    d. A bond that forms between oppositely charged atoms:

    e. A bond based on the unequal sharing of electrons:

    31. Label the different bonds on the following diagram:

    Module 2.5 The structure of water gives it unique properties.

    32. True or False. If false, make a true statement: Electrons are shared equally between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in a molecule of water.

    33. Label the following diagram with the following terms:

    Hydrogen bond, unequal sharing of electrons, – charge, + charge

    A

    E

    D

    C

    B

    a. 

    b. 

    c. 

    d. 

    e. 

    34. Briefly explain what would happen to a large body of water (think Lake Superior) if ice didn’t float.

    35. Because water is      , it is able to dissolve many of life’s important substances.

    36. Oils are nonpolar substances (molecules formed by nonpolar covalent bonds) that do not interact with water. Explain why oils are not attracted to water, whereas a substance like NaCl (table salt) is attracted to H2O. Hint: Think of why water molecules are attracted to each other.

    37. Which of the following is a unique property of water?

    a. |_| cohesion

    b. |_| floating as ice

    c. |_| being a crucial solvent

    d. |_| all of the above

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