Provide a substantive contribution that advances the discussion in a meaningful way by identifying strengths of the posting, challenging assumptions, and asking clarifying questions.
Psychology homework helpPEER RESPONSE GUIDELINES:
Provide a substantive contribution that advances the discussion in a meaningful way by identifying strengths of the posting, challenging assumptions, and asking clarifying questions. Your response is expected to reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical, empirical, or professional literature to support your views and writings. Reference your sources using standard APA guidelines. Review the Participation Guidelines section of the Discussion Participation Scoring Guide to gain an understanding of what is required in a substantive response.
According to the information provided by Warner (2013) a null hypothesis is an algebraic statement that a certain parameter has a certain value. The example that was given was, “H0 for the one-sample z test is usually of the form H0: μ = c where c is a specific numerical value. In other words, H0 is the assumption that the population mean on a variable corresponds to a specific numerical value c (Warner 2013, p.1056).” In simpler form a null hypothesis that says there is no statistical significance between the two variables in the hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis according to Warner (2013) is also known as research hypothesis that can take 3 possible forms. You have non-directional hypothesis one tailed or directional hypothesis, but ultimately it is the opposite of the null hypothesis. Basically they are saying that there is statistically significance between the values. An Idea that I think could work with ABA is resulting back to the job I do, dealing with children with behavior plans and IEPs. Based on whatever contract that I have going on with a student can result into how the item is received. I can make a null hypothesis and state that because the child is having a bad day then they will not care about what they receive and it can either be good or bad. I would be able to determine this by calculating their behavior and understanding the little to no increase on the mean. My alternative hypothesis I would determine that the behavior would increase more which could alter the chances of the student getting the item. Based on the information provided by Warner (2013) the statistically significant between the hypothesis would be determined on the behavior or the child. Do they want the prize token given by the teacher, or do they not care?
Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied Statistics: From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques, 2nd Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781483305974/
PEER RESPONSE 2:
Researchers create null hypotheses ( H0) to make guesses about a statistic, such as a mean (Warner, 2009). This guess has no statistical significance to either variable that is being measured (Warner, 2009). In many cases, the null hypothesis is incorrect (Warner, 2009). Ironically enough, researchers hope to find data to prove that the null hypothesis is inconclusive (Warner, 2009). Once a null hypothesis is created, researchers will work to find enough research and evidence to determine that the null hypothesis that they made is incorrect (Warner, 2009).
An alternative hypothesis is also known as the research hypothesis (Warner, 2009). Unlike the null hypothesis, the alternative hypothesis uses two variables that have statistical significance (Warner, 2009). In many cases, researchers will use an alternative hypothesis to determine that their null hypothesis was incorrect (Warner, 2009). Alternative hypotheses can take form in more than one way, depending on the need of the hypothesis (Warner, 2009). One of the first forms that the alternative hypothesis can take is a two-tailed alternative hypothesis (Warner, 2009). In a two-tailed alternative hypothesis, the researcher will finally have the opportunity to determine whether or not the null hypothesis was accurate (Warner, 2009). The null hypothesis will be deemed incorrect if the two-tailed alternative hypothesis determines that the values of M were larger, or smaller than 100 (Warner, 2009). The second and third forms of alternative hypotheses that can occur are the one-tailed or directional alternative hypothesis (Warner, 2009). Both of these hypotheses can also help determine if the null hypothesis was inaccurate based on the factors of the means and inequalities (Warner, 2009).
An example of a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis in a field related to applied behavior analysis (ABA) would be creating a sample scenario where students with behavioral problems are placed on a token economy system. In many cases (at least that I have experienced thus far), token economy allows students the opportunity to work towards something they will enjoy (ie. A tangible item). In this scenario, imagine that a behavioral student is being put on a behavior plan and token economy system. If the student earns 10 tokens a day, they will then earn a preferred edible item at the end of the day. However, if the student does not earn the 10 tokens, then they will not earn the edible. If I were to create a null hypothesis, I would hypothesize that the student’s frequency of the student’s behavioral problems will not improve because they do not care about the edible item. I would determine this by estimating that their behavior will increase by a mean of only 0%. However, in my alternative hypothesis, I would hypothesize that the student will improve by at least 50% and the frequency of their behavior will decrease by a mean of 50%.
Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied Statistics From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oakes, CA: SAGE Publications.