• 04 SEP 18
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    Chapter 15: Psychological Therapies

    Chapter 15: Psychological Therapies (Active Learning Activity = 15 po

    Use the crossword puzzle to fill in the blanks on the next page(s). (You do NOT need to actually write your answers in the boxes here).

    Part 1—Knowing Key Terms (4 points) :

    Fill in the blanks from the crossword puzzle above using key terms from the textbook and/or lecture notes.

    Across

    4. the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client.-     

    7. drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior.-

    8. the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.-

    9. psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet. Also called online, Internet, or Web therapy or counseling.-

    10. learning through the observation and imitation of others.-

    12. drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers.-

    14. type of therapy in which a group of clients meet together with a therapist.-

    16. therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques.-

    18. the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client.-

    20. the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams.-

    21. an insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts.-

    22. distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original.-

    23. the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders.-

    Down

    1. drugs used to treat depression and anxiety.-     

    2. surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders.-

    3. In psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist.-

    5. the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior.-

    6. therapies that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain.-

    9. therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts.-

    11. form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person’s head and running an electric current through the electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion.-

    13. treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively.-

    15. therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional.-

    17. occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent.-

    19. distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person.-

    Part 2—Comprehending and Applying Concepts (4 points):

    Identify the type of psychotherapy represented by each statement below by choosing from:

    Cognitive Humanistic (Person-Centered)

    Psychoanalytic Family therapy

    Behavioral

    1. When she started relating to me in the way she related to her mother, it became clear that she perceived her mother as a rival for her father’s affection.

     

    2. That child was a bad actor; he had a serious behavior disorder. It wasn’t difficult to understand how he got that way after I had a few sessions with his parents and siblings.

     

    3. She has the worst case of agoraphobia I’ve ever seen. A peer counselor is stopping by everyday to work with her. It took a week to get her out the front door, and more than a week to get her off the porch. They’re working on walking out to the mailbox now. We’re making progress, but it’s slow.

     

    4. I had to refer a patient to another therapist last week. I just couldn’t seem to identify with the guy, and couldn’t accept the way he acted. Feeling as I did about him, I didn’t think I could help him.

     

    5. The theme of hostility toward authority figures occurs over and over again in his dreams and free associations, yet he claims that he and his father had a close and affectionate relationship.

     

    6. I asked her to list the reasons why she thinks she is unable to get through a job interview. She gave me three typewritten pages enumerating more fears, apprehensions, self-criticisms, and negative self-evaluations than I would have believed possible for one person to have. Her thinking about herself has really gotten off the track.

     

    7. He needs to convince himself that his past failures are not elements of a pattern that will govern his future. And he needs to convince himself that he is in charge of his life, and that he can choose the paths that will lead to accomplishment and satisfaction.

     

    8. We have this voluntary program at the state penitentiary for men who have been convicted of child molestation. We are currently trying a method in which we pair electric shock with pictures of attractive children.

     

    9. People do not develop in isolation. They are part of an interacting system. To effect a change in an individual, it is necessary to change the social context in which the individual operates.

     

    10. We think that depression is frequently the result of misinterpretation of environmental events, a tendency to attribute failures to the self and accomplishments to things like luck, fate, or the help of other people. Most of us have a self-serving bias in our attributions; people who are depressed have a self-defeating bias in their attributions.

     

    Part 3—Understanding and Analyzing Concepts (4 points) :

    Given below are short descriptions of abnormal behaviors. For each case you should decide (A) a possible diagnosis of the disorder (drawing on your knowledge of material from Chapter 14) and (B) the type of therapy you would recommend (Biomedical Therapy vs. Psychotherapy. Be specific: e.g., if recommending medication, state which kind; if recommending psychotherapy, state which approach and some techniques that might be used).

    1) “Madge” was found wandering the streets of New Jersey. She was brought to the attention of a licensed clinical social worker because she would routinely stand in automobile traffic and scream obscenities at the top of her lungs to no one in particular. During one of “Madge’s” rare lucid moments, she told the social worker that she lived in a garbage dumpster and that she obeyed voices who commanded her to do the things she did. A search by police and news agencies for friends or relatives proved futile; no one seemed to know who “Madge” was, she seemed to have nowhere to go, and her disordered thinking was becoming more and more bizarre.

    A. Diagnosis =

    B. Treatment Approach and Techniques =

    2) Kurt’s mood swings were unpredictable and excessive in nature. One time he was hyperactive and extremely elated with accelerated speech and a flight of ideas which, at times, seemed incoherent. During this period he worked feverishly day and night on an important novel that “had to be started and finished that week.” Months later, Kurt experienced a sad period, during which he could not get out of bed for more than minutes at a time. He would not see any friends for a period of some weeks until he slowly came out of it and seemed to be normal again (for a while). Sometimes Kurt felt so dejected and agitated that he contemplated suicide.

    A. Diagnosis =

    B. Treatment Approach and Techniques =

    3) Gwen has had an intense fear of dogs since she was a child. When she was 4 years old her older brother forced her to approach a large sleeping dog who was chained in a yard. Although she escaped being bitten, the dog’s loud angry barking and frantic movements, coupled with her crying and agitation, left their mark on her. Now, as an adult, she is still wary of being around dogs and feels apprehensive and anxious whenever she sees a dog on the street. Visits to friends who keep pets have been severely cut off; Gwen never drops by unannounced for fear that the dog might be free in the house. On the rare occasions when she does visit, the animals must be kept chained out of sight in the backyard.

    A. Diagnosis =

    B. Treatment Approach and Techniques =

    4) Dan’s drinking had become more frequent over the past 6 months. Although he didn’t drink to the point of becoming grossly incapacitated and was careful to never drink and drive, it was clear that his time in the bar after work had increased and that his daily cocktail had become three or four. Dan blamed his recent problems at work for his “need to unwind,” and also cited difficulties with his wife, Sharon. According to Dan, when he tried to discuss his stress with Sharon she seemed distant and uninterested, or dismissed his problems as minor. She seemed much more concerned about their daughter, Lisa, and her increasing moodiness.

    A. Diagnosis =

    B. Treatment Approach and Techniques =

    5) Cindy feels as though she is a failure. Although her college GPA is a respectable 3.7 she feels as though she should be doing much better. She is concerned about her parents’ views of her. Even though they call, visit, and send care packages often, Cindy is sure they do so because they know she is incapable of caring for herself. When a recent short-term relationship fizzled out Cindy blamed her own inability to maintain a witty conversation as the cause of the break-up. Although several other people have since asked her out, she is nervous about accepting because she knows if things don’t go well she won’t ever get a second chance.

    A. Diagnosis =

    B. Treatment Approach and Techniques =

    Part 4—Synthes izing and Evaluating Concepts (3 points) :

    Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).

    1. Describe psychoanalysis. Include information about its theoretical background, how it seeks to help people, its key concepts, and an evaluation of its effectiveness.

     

    2. Describe person-centered therapy. Include information about its theoretical background, how it seeks to help people, its key concepts, and three basic elements

    necessary in a successful client-therapist relationship.

     

    3. Describe one type of cognitive therapy. Include information about its theoretical background, how it seeks to help people, and its key concepts. What are some advantages and disadvantages of this type of therapy?

     

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