Chapter 13: Theories of Personality (Active Learning Activity = 15 points)
Page 1 of 6
Use the crossword puzzle to fill in the blanks on the next page(s). (You do NOT need to actually write your answers in the boxes here).
Part 1—Knowing Key Terms (4 points) :
Fill in the blanks from the crossword puzzle above using key terms from the textbook and/or lecture notes.
1. one of the five factors, willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences.-
3. defense mechanism involving placing, or “projecting”, one’s own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself.-
4. the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave. –
6. part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational and logical.-
7. value judgments of a person’s moral and ethical behavior.-
8. method of personality assessment in which the professional asks questions of the client and allows the client to answer, either in a structured or unstructured fashion.-
9. Jung’s collective, universal human memories.-
11. archetype that works with the ego to manage other archetypes and balance the personality.-
13. part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious.-
16. defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.-
19. part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending upon how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal.-
20. a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving.-
21. the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others, dependability.-
22. the instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a society’s standards for behavior.-
23. people who are outgoing and sociable.-
24. fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.-
25. degree of emotional instability or stability.-
2. Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based upon it.-
5. dimension of personality referring to one’s need to be with other people.-
10. disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage.-
12. in behaviorism, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic.-
13. people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention.-
14. the enduring characteristics with which each person is born.-
15. dimension of personality in which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation.-
17. the emotional style of a person which may range from easy-going, friendly and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.-
18. part of the personality that acts as a moral center.-
Part 2—Comprehending and Applying Concepts (3 points) :
Instructions: Decide which type of psychologist would be most likely to make each statement listed below:
1. I think people in our profession should put more effort into trying to understand mentally healthy people and prosocial behavior.
2. Aggression is a human instinct. Society can control it to some extent, but we will never eliminate aggressive behavior.
3. Your student may be under a lot of pressure from his parents, but that is no excuse for cheating. We are responsible for what we do.
4. If you want to understand why she did it, look to the environment for clues instead of at inferred internal forces such as impulses and motives.
5. We humans are products of evolutionary forces that have preserved selfishness, pleasure-seeking, and a tendency to deceive ourselves.
6. It doesn’t seem to me that you need to dig into a person’s past in order to understand the person’s current problems and concerns.
7. There aren’t any values inherent in human nature. Values are acquired in the same way we learn to say “please” and “thank you.”
8. If we wanted to improve the character of people in our society, we would need to start when they are very young. By the time a kid is five years old, it’s probably too late.
9. You may think your choice of chili and ice cream for lunch was freely made, but your perception of free choice is an illusion. Choosing chili and ice cream is predictable from the consequences of past behavior.
10. General laws of behavior and experience that apply to all people are not very helpful if you want to understand a particular individual.
11. You say people are inherently good, and he says they are inherently pretty bad. I don’t think people are inherently either good or bad.
12. The sex drive is with us at birth. People just don’t want to believe that infants get sexual pleasure from sucking and exploring anything they get in their hands with their mouths.
Part 3—Understanding and Analyzing Concepts (3 points) :
Read each statement and decide whether it is TRUE or FALSE based upon your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes.
1. Sigmund Freud proposed that his patients’ disorders resulted most often from psychological conflicts related to sex.
2. The id operates according to the reality principle.
3. Steve is extremely uptight and compulsively neat and orderly. According to Freudian theory, he became fixated at the oral stage of psychosexual development.
4. According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the phallic stage.
5. According to Freud, girls have to go through the Oedipus complex, but boys don’t.
6. Jung’s collective unconscious and Freud’s unconscious are very similar.
7. Karen Horney viewed personality disturbances as resulting from the basic anxiety all people share.
8. Freud’s psychodynamic theory has been completely disregarded since the advent of new technology that has allowed us to understand the brain differently.
9. Freud’s theories about how early childhood experiences impact later life personality came from his direct observation of children in his clinical practice.
10. Albert Bandura called the relationship of the three factors that influence personality psychic determinism.
11. Self-efficacy refers to the ability of a person to give unconditional positive regard.
12. According to Rogers, a person whose real self and ideal self are close has a better chance of reaching self-actualization.
13. According to Rogers, one’s perception of whom one should be or would like to be is called the real self.
14. Gordon Allport thought traits were wired into the brain.
15. A great way to remember the Big Five personality traits is with the acronym THEME.
16. The Minnesota Twin Studies have determined, as a result of years of research, that personality is entirely genetic and is NOT influenced by our surroundings or environment.
17. The Big Five personality dimensions are in direct competition with Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.
18. The main advantage of personality inventories over projective tests and interviews is that inventories are standardized.
19. Projective tests like the Rorschach inkblot test have a distinct advantage over other tests because of their high validity and reliability.
20. The MMPI–2 and the TAT are both well-known projective tests.
Part 4—Synthesizing and Evaluating Concepts (5 points) :
Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).
1. What is the main sticking point between the theories of Sigmund Freud and Karen Horney? How are their theories alike? Which do you agree with, if either?
2. Why does Freudian theory garner so much criticism? What are some positive qualities of Freud’s theory that might describe behavior in the twenty-first century?
3. Compare and contrast the theories of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers. How do their theories explain the self? How are they similar? How are they different?
4. What are the pros and cons of trait theories of personality?
5. If you had to have a personality assessment, which type (projective, interview, inventory) would you prefer? Would you want more than one approach taken? What are the benefits and drawbacks of the approaches you selected?