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    ADHD effects on adolescent’s Cognitive Performance

    Grant Proposal

    Running head: GRANT PROPOSAL 1

    ADHD effects on adolescent’s Cognitive Performance

    6

    ADHD effects on adolescent’s Cognitive Performance

    PSY 625 Biological Bases of Behavior

    April 24, 2018

    Introduction

    Attention Deficit /Hyperactive Disorder is one of the most common psychological disorder among adolescents, it affects approximately between 5 to 10 % of all children in United States of America. ADHD is a health disorder that involves biologically and active substances in the brain. (Flewelling, 2016). Those with ADHD must deal with symptoms such as hyperactive, impulsivity and inattention. Most of them do not realize the existence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) which is a condition that leads to these symptoms (Flewelling, 2016). The ADHD symptoms can affect a child overall life not just school performance, parents can get desperate to find help for their children, yet they are not sure if medicating them is the best way. There are those that argue that medicating children at adolescent level can turn into addiction later in life. To be considered of having ADHD one must exhibit behaviors before the age of 7 and continue at least of six months. When a child cannot act or respond to other kids as expected it can be embarrassing and it affect their social life negatively especially in a classroom setting, play ground or social gathering. What causes the ADHD is not very clear but there are numerous factors such as gender, genetics, environment, prenatal risks etc. (Weyandt et al., 2017).

    Background

    The persons that have ADHD tend to have challenges and in order to assist them, this proposal aims at focusing on the adolescents who have this complication and looking into intervention mechanisms that will allow these victims to have the same environment with others that do not have this mental condition (Weyandt et al., 2017). Adolescence is a stage that most youngsters learn more that will help them in personal identity and the loss of attention distract them from meeting this goal thus assistance may be an important step towards ensuring these people are protected from actions that may make them suffer the consequences of the same (Soncin et al., 2016). The paper is going to examine the best intervention methods because most of the parents have termed the medical intervention as a road towards drug addiction that they are not ready to have their children in that state (Chan et al., 2008). Similarly, the paper will also analyze the cost of treating ADHD for those adolescents that are living with the condition as well as mitigation and prevention of the condition which is important as a remedy when it comes to reducing the number of the youths that are susceptible to the illness.

    Medical intervention

    There are those that have crossed off seeking medical help to ease ADHD symptoms without clear evidence that it could trigger addiction. However, studies have indicated that ADHD can be treated with medication or therapy but most of the medication does not cure the condition but lessen attention losing. Some of the drugs that may help the situation are atomoxetine, guanfacine, and methylphenidate (Pelham et al., 1993). Some of these drugs should only be taken when attending class sessions whereas others are taken on the daily basis. The fact that the condition is not cured renders the patient to use the drug repeatedly which makes most people to fear the addiction that may come as a result of continuous utilization of the drugs (Robinson et al., 2017). Therapy such as behavior management and observation of mental disorders among the children can also help in the treatment of the ADHD condition.

    The paper aims at looking for funding that will be channeled towards erecting structures and strategies that will help in ensuring that the adolescents are protected from this mental condition and those living with the conditions are assisted by having a solution that will help not only in reducing the forgetfulness but also stops the condition once and for all. In this study we aim to investigate and understand the effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among adolescent’s cognitive performance by measuring their ability to finish a given task within the stipulated time. This will help us to compare the difference in cognitive task performance between children with ADHD and the control children. “Cognitive performance can also be assessed by an instrument under Executive functions such as planning, memory, working, inhibition, mental flexibility, initiation and monitoring action” (Chan et al., 2008). The process of reaching the results required demands a lot of resources and skills which a single entity cannot raise that is why the project requires that the well-wishers should support the entire program. Therefore, for the project to meet all its demands then additional of $60 million will be required in addition to our cash at hand.

    Proposed Study and Budget

    The planned research study will employ a range of investigative methods so as to collect a diversified data. Examples of such methods include, interviews, Questionnaires, Observations, Focus Groups, Case Studies and Records Reviews. A variety of measures will be employed to ensure the data collected is accurate. Presented here below is a discussion of how the above methods will be used to collected data. Important to note is the fact that no preference will be shown to any particular method. The reason for doing this is to help avoid a case where one data set influences the conclusions from the research.

    Interviews

    This method will involve question and answer sessions. Adolescents in public places will be randomly stopped and asked some few questions regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). What this means is that the method will involve face to face meetings. Of great importance to note in this case is the fact that the method will not be restricted to interview one person at a time. It will include interviewing of a group of individuals. The main reason for this inclusion is that interviewing one individual at a time takes so much time. Conducting group interviews is time efficient and leads to more data.

    A few of the challenges likely to be experienced from using this method include the fact that an interviewer may decide to concentrate only on respondents who answer questions when conducting group interviews and also the fact that respondents might fear giving honest answers for fear that they might be victimized. What normally happens during most interviews is that researchers tend to avoid compelling the other respondents in a group interview to provide their answer. This is due to the fear that compelling them might bore them making them to leave the place. This of course might make the ones who remain unstable.

    Questionnaires

    This technique will involve issuing of printed questions to adolescents to answer. Both open ended and closed ended questions will be used during the study. One of the advantages of using this kind of method is that it will attract many respondents to participate since the questions that will be asked will be easy. It is unlike in the case of interviews where adolescents do not know the number of questions they will be asked. The other advantage is that respondents are more likely to offer more honest answers when compared to the answers given during group interviews.

    Some of the challenges likely to be experienced from using this method include the fact that this method will limit respondents by requiring them to provide short answers and also the fact that respondents might find it difficult to answer questions that they don’t understand. Limited space stations will influence the respondents to provide short answer. Questions with multiple choices will even limit the respondents more. The respondents when answering multiple questions will only select available options even if his or her opinion is not captured.

    Observations

    This method will involve use of naked eyes to identify any form of behavior on adolescents that might be associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some of the strengths associated with this method include the fact that this method does is not negatively affected by ‘the researcher effect” problem and also the fact that these method is relatively cheap in terms of cost. What normally happens is that many respondents in many research studies tend to be cautious when answering questions either by writing or when being interviewed. This especially occurs when providing answers that are more likely to attract shame.

    Anticipated challenges as a result of using this method include the fact that only current behaviors will be seen and also the fact that it will be difficult to gage attitudes of the respondents. Being limited to the current behaviors being observed in an adolescent will make it difficult to conclude with certainty that the behaviors that were observed were those that characterize Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This perhaps is due to the fact that most psychological disorders tend to have analogous symptoms. To put it in a simpler way, most psychological disorders tend to have corresponding symptoms.

    Focus Groups

    This technique will involve interviewing a small group that will be made up of 8 members. These individuals will be used to provide all the data that is required. The main difference between this method and that of conducting interviews is that in this one, only one group will be used to obtain all the required data while the latter involves interrogating different groups or even single individuals to obtain required data. One of the strengths of this method is that it enables researchers to obtain in depth information. Another key strength is that it is quick and flexible.

    Likely challenges as a result of using this method include the fact that the respondents that will be involved will be small hence not a representative of the larger sample on mind and also the fact that it is normally difficult to gather people in one location especially when there are no incentives involved such as monetary gifts. The 8 member group is too small and so cannot be said that it represents the whole population. the only circumstance under which it can represent the whole sample is if the members are increased to a great number.

    Case Studies

    This method will involve studying of related events. Some of the strengths associated with this method include the fact that case studies help researchers gather detailed information and also the fact that they might lead to unexpected discoveries. Obtaining detailed information is due to the fact that most published works are more comprehensive. it is difficult for publishers to publish shallow work. A few of the challenges likely to be experienced from using this method include the fact that it is difficult to generalize findings and the fact that presence of researcher leads to biased data.

    Record Reviews

    This method will involve reviewing the works of earlier researcher. A few of the strengths associated with this method include the fact that this technique helps conserve time and also the fact that it helps researchers obtain large information within a very short time. Some of the challenges likely to be experienced from using this method include the fact that an error made by previous researchers might be carried forward and also the fact that the data could be biased due to the fact that the previous methods that were used to collect data were not efficient enough.

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