|Effect on [H+] when dissolved in H2O|
7. The pH in your cells is dropping. You have buffers to minimize this change in pH. Briefly explain what the buffer would do in this situation with respect to the H+ concentration in your cells.
Module 2.8 Most biological macromolecules are polymers.
Module 2.9 Carbohydrates are composed of monosaccharides.
|Monomer or Polymer?|
Module 2.10 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules.
31. A tanker is carrying crude oil from Alaska to a port in California. During the trip, the ship’s hull is ruptured and spills the crude oil into the Pacific Ocean. The oil sits on top of the water and does not mix with it. What characteristic must be true about the oil?
33. Complete the following diagram of a phospholipid:
34. The two layers of phospholipid that make up a cell’s membrane are arranged so that they are facing tail to tail. What would be the effect of this interior core of phospholipid tails? Hint: Keep in mind what you already know about phospholipid tails.
35. True or False. If false, make a true statement: Cholesterol is used within the cell to help maintain the structure of the cell’s membrane.
36. Which of the following is a lipid?
37. Are both steroids and triglycerides in your body? If so, give a function performed by each.
Module 2.11 Your diet contains several different kinds of fats.
38. There are two kinds of triglycerides. What are they?
39. Which fatty acid tail from the following diagram is saturated? Which one is unsaturated? Explain how you know.
40. Saturated means that an object can hold no more of something. Explain why the terms saturated and unsaturated are good descriptors for the molecules they describe.
41. You are a biochemist working for a food manufacturer. You are working to identify a new fat you discovered in a plant from a rainforest in Brazil. During your investigation, you determine that the fat tends to be a liquid at room temperature, and biochemical analysis reveals to few hydrogen atoms for the amount of carbon that is present. What kind of fat have you likely discovered?
42. An unsaturated fat can be turned into a solid or semi-solid state by:
43. Two students are discussing triglycerides. One student tells the other that all fats are bad for your health. The second student disagrees. Which student is correct and why?
Module 2.12 Proteins perform many of life’s functions.
45. Which are the monomers from which large proteins are constructed:
46. Amino acids are joined by what type of covalent bond:
47. You are a biochemist working for a pharmaceutical company. You are identifying a new molecule you have isolated for a species of bat. You determine that the molecule contains a carboxylic acid group and a group of atoms that would give the molecule unique hydrophilic properties. The power goes out before you finish your analysis. Based on what you know so far, what kind of molecule is it? What else might you have learned from it if the power had not gone out?
48. True for False, If false make a true statement: Amino acids are joined together through a dehydration synthesis reaction forming a peptide bond.
49. Complete the table on protein structure:
|Polypeptide||Folded chain||Multiple Chain|
50. Proteins serve many functions within your body. List three functions served by proteins in your body. Additionally, list a specific protein that performs that function.
51. Protein shape is crucial to its proper function. Students have difficulty grasping this idea and how changing shape affects its function. Briefly explain how the words tasty and nasty can serve as a good analogy for a teacher trying to explain the concept to students.
Module 2.13 Enzymes speed chemical reactions.
53. True or False, if false make a true statement: A chemical reaction changes the shape of the enzyme permanently.
54. Complete the following diagram regarding enzymes and substrates.
55. Explain what would happen if you altered the shape of an enzyme’s active site. Remember that an enzyme is a protein.
56. The amount of energy needed to perform a chemical reaction is the:
57. Complete the following diagram, which illustrates the effect of enzymes on activation energy.
58. In pole vaulting, the higher the bar is placed, the more difficult is to clear it. Explain why this is a good analogy to help students understand enzymes and activation energy.